1. Growing mobility of people
Education and participation in the labor force make especially women more capable to migrate. Migrants can help to bridge the skills- and labor shortages in a given country. Furthermore, a growing mobility leads to the formation of new social bonds and the establishing of new, cross border links (for example, between academia and industry).
2. Global population growth
Female educational attainment can lead to a decrease in birth rates. Although the relationship is more complex than one may think, some studies find that women with lower levels of income and education have higher fertility rates than women with higher income and education levels. Loosening immigration policies could make up for low birthrates.
It is still rather unclear whether education increases women’s access to new information or their ability to adopt new birth control technology. However, educated women adopt modern birth control methods more often than uneducated women.
3. Medical progress
Female educational attainment and labour force participation foster research and improve outcomes in women related illnesses. Research has shown that gender balance in the clinical workforce can positively affect patient outcomes, enhance interactions between industry representatives and female practitioners as well lead to innovative designs in medical equipment for women.
Increasing educational competition in the labor market may lead to fewer chances for women to participate. Currently, women looking for work have a harder time finding a job than men. Unemployment and lack of any job perspective are drivers of (forced) migration. Therefore, there is an urgent need to create good jobs for females entering the labor force.
5. Increased state fragility
Women are less susceptible to corruption. However, women are also most vulnerable and most disadvantaged in fragile states. Increased state fragility, in form of conflict, crime, and terrorism, are very likely to negatively impact female educational attainment and labor force participation.